Use of BSC for IT governance involves creating an IT scorecard, which aligns the IT strategy and performance management framework with the overall organizational strategy and performance management framework. ITIL and COBIT have been described briefly below. 4.1 IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) ITIL addresses issues relating to skill requirements and organization structure and provides detailed information on how to manage IT operations. The ITIL framework is published in a series of eight books called sets. These sets are • Service delivery: This covers the various services that the data center needs to provide to the business organization. • Service support: This gives guidelines on how the data center must make sure that the customers have access to related services. • Planning to implement service management: This describes the necessary steps that are required to shift to ITIL and to derive the benefits from the shift. • Security management: This talks about how an IT manager has to organize and maintain the security of the IT infrastructure. • Infrastructure management: This describes the processes and tools used in planning, conveying, and managing the quality of IT services. successful development and delivery of IT services. tits needed fo m • Business perspective: This gives out the business requires process software development lifecycle. of managing the • Applications management: This tells us about the pr Asset Management (SAM) and also talks about guides the organization Software perform it effectively and efficiently.

The different stages in SDLC are y • Feasibility study and project initiation: A feasibility study is conducted to check whether the systems development program is viable or not. The right types of controls should be in place while conducting the feasibility study. While approving the project, an adequate number of alternative options should be considered and presented to the approving authority. Each option should be evaluated in terms of its business benefits, costs, and strategic fit. The estimates of business benefits should be achievable, and workable methods for measuring achievement should be defined. The business case for developing/acquiring a new system should include the costs of staff training and of developing a business continuity plan. The estimated payback period should be less than the likely economic working life of the system. If the viability of the business case relies heavily on long-term estimates, the risks associated with long-term measurement periods should be included in the project risk assessment. The cost/benefit analysis should include appropriate margins to take into account the underestimation of costs and overestimation of benefits. The project risks should be identified, measured, and considered by the approving authority. The appropriate authorizing authority sho old • Once formal approval for the project to host.

The term EV represents the value earned from a project as and when the activities are completed. The main benefit of EV is that it makes a consistent basis b for schedule and cost analysis. This is achieved by using either time Or money uniform unit of measurement. as the 19. (b) Work Breakdown Structure The first step is to establish a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to divide the project into manageable components. WBS should be established at multiple levels in a hierarchical order. It means one component at a particular level can be broken down into smaller components. These smaller components form the next lower level. All the components must cumulatively add up to the total project. 20. (b) Fine-tuning The productivity of the project does not remain constant throughout the duration of the project. It is low in the initial stages of the project due to the time is taken by the employees to streamline the activities and high in the middle phase of the project as they get proficient in the activities of the project by then. The productivity falls in the final stages of the project duration as a result of the fine-tuning activities undertaken in this phase. 21. (a) Only I, ii, and iii Financial reports are more important in the case of a cost-reimbursement contrast as they provide the inputs for processing of payments. 22. (a) Trouble reports